Roe v Wade案推翻:数据保护受到威胁?
Tools designed to help people track their health could be working against their civil liberties.
2022年6月24日, the US Supreme Court issued its official ruling on the case of Dobbs v Jackson Women’s Health Organization. Their decision overturned the landmark case of Roe v Wade which previously gave a federally guaranteed right to abortion across all US states. The decision means that women in some US states will be open to criminal prosecution if they seek an abortion.
The ruling is clearly of grave concern for the reproductive rights of US citizens. 对人们的负面影响是广泛的, 从那些更明显的, 比如在她们生活的地方很难堕胎, 刑事检控风险, to the more hidden such as costs associated with travelling to receive healthcare in another state.
The ruling also raises serious concerns about law enforcement in states that outlaw abortion, and one aspect which requires urgent attention is officials' ability to subpoena data relating to termination of pregnancy, 来自数据公司和“femtech”应用程序, 特别是生育追踪器, 现在是一个广泛使用的智能手机应用程序.
这意味着对于生育追踪器的用户来说, not only is their privacy entangled with the digital footprint that we leave online, 但他们的健康结果和身体自主权也是如此. We must learn from the overturning of Roe v Wade if we are to protect the reproductive rights of women, 变性人, 其他性别身份的人也会怀孕.
“Femtech”是一个用来描述一系列技术的术语, 通常是个人健康追踪技术, 与智能手机应用程序相关联, 承诺女性的力量, 对自己身体的控制和了解. The femtech market is growing rapidly, with some predictions estimating a market worth of $1.在未来五年内达到1万亿美元.
它在青少年和年轻人中尤其受欢迎, with reports that it is the second most popular type of app for young women in app stores. 对于许多用户来说无疑是有用的, 它继续对他们的隐私构成严重风险, 因为和生育追踪应用一样, 用户可以输入月经周期长度等数据, 他们可能出现的任何症状，比如抽筋, 什么时候和谁发生过性关系, 等等等等.
今天，JDB电子很多人都非常依赖智能手机, JDB电子使用的众多应用程序处理各种数据. 很多时候，这是卖给第三方的, 比如社交媒体网站, 为了做广告.
Despite the fact that health data is generally subject to relatively stronger protection and regulation than other kinds of data, 在大多数司法管辖区，这些规则有时还远远不够. 进一步, 隐私条款通常用小字印刷, are skippable and often not presented to users when they open the app for the first time for acceptance or rejection.
据报道，一些流行的应用程序与Facebook共享用户数据, 主要是为了定向广告. 然而还有一个问题, 这比那些承诺不分享或出售数据的公司要复杂得多, 我可能会添加, 并不是所有的).
不同司法管辖区对用户数据的保护不同, 对于大多数femtech用户来说，这是一个在哪里处理数据的问题. 为了回应对隐私的担忧, 跟随多布斯的决定, several femtech companies released statements assuring users that the data they enter is ‘private and safe’. 但到目前为止收集的经验证据表明情况恰恰相反.
例如, 美国众议院监督和改革委员会最近的一封信, cites a study that shows that nearly 90 per cent of the top 23 women’s health apps in the US share data with third parties, 只有50%的用户请求用户允许.
It is worth noting that the issue of privacy for those seeking abortions extends beyond femtech. After the Roe v Wade decision Google announced plans to delete location history for users who have visited abortion clinics in the US, 但从那时起，就有报道称这很容易被绕过.
任何关心隐私权和角色数据的人都可以, 不幸的是将, play in the criminalisation of women and others who can get pregnant seeking healthcare, 会惊慌. 就像苏格兰最近的尝试性但有希望的举措一样, towards securing the safety and health of those seeking access to abortion clinics, (such as recent discussions surrounding implementing buffer zones) action needs to be taken with regards to securing privacy in the UK, 太.
Recent press coverage has highlighted alarming reports of women being investigated by police for seeking an abortion in England, 在1967年《JDB电子游戏》规定的标准之外, the legislation that provides for lawful abortions (under certain circumstances) in England, 威尔士和苏格兰. (All other abortions are illegal in England and Wales under the Offences Against the Person Act 1861. 后一项法案不适用于苏格兰). 遗憾的是，这类调查并不新鲜. 此外, it was reported almost exactly a month after the Dobbs decision that the UK Government has removed its commitments to abortion and sexual health rights from a statement on gender equality.
世界各地的数据保护制度, 它可以说是JDB电子目前在英国的那种, 源自《JDB电子》, “比大多数更好”吗. That being said, this regime is often criticised for not doing enough to protect our data.
进一步, it seems increasingly likely that data protection in the UK is going to depart from its EU roots, post-Brexit, 和其他立法一样. 事实上, in a recent statement regarding the new 数据保护 and Digital Information Bill, 介绍了18日th 2022年7月，政府明确了“[S]eize the benefits of Brexit and transform the UK’s independent data laws”, 还有一些改革领域, 特别注意到femtech, is the claim that “[w]e are reducing the burdens on businesses that have held the UK back from the benefits of greater personal data use before now”.
这些应用程序收集的有关性的数据, 月经, pregnancy and abortion are so sensitive it is vital that we remain alert to the changing landscape in reproductive rights here, 和其他地方, and the impact that data protection (or lack thereof) can have on our bodily and physical freedom.